Elaboration exclusively talking about the macro level that describe methods related to the relationship a few ideas, such as how to weave these ideas. Below you will see the authors describe the theory of learning by using elaboration, namely: 1). Elaboratif sequence. 2). Sequence learning prerequisites. 3). A summary / overview. 4). Making synthesis. 5). Making an analogy. 6). Activating cognitive strategies. and 7). Control students. As the following explanation:
1. Sequence elaboratif
Elaboratif sequence is something typical from simple to complex circuits, or from general to detail, which has special characteristics. It says it has special characteristics because mempreskrepsikan very differently in ways commonly used to organize a sequence of learning from general to detail. Elaboratif sequence has two things in it, namely: (1) The general idea is described not only summarize existing idea. (2) The description (epitomize) is based on a single type of material.
a. Epitomizing vs summarizing
Depiction (epitomize) and summarize distinguished in two important ways;
(1). Presenting a small portion ideas learned in the classroom
(2). Present a concrete, meaningful, at the application level.
While summarizing the presentation to consider the broader, but shallower, abstract, at the level of recall.
b. Single material type
By considering a single material type, epitomizing the process is done by one of three types of materials: concepts, procedures, principles. The concept is a set of objects, events, symbols that have a definite character. Knowing the concept means to identify, recognize, classify, describe something. The procedure is a set of actions that affect the dicapai.Prinsip sesuaatu is to recognize the relationship between changes in something and changes in the other. It is also called a hypothesis, proposition, rule of law depends on the amount of evidence of its truth. Of the three types of materials were selected the most important u lo achieve common goals in the classroom. To further elaborate series has characterization: conceptual organization, organizational procedures, epitomizing the organisasi.Esensi theory requires:
(1). Selecting one type of material as a material organization (concepts, principles, procedures)
(2). Make a list of the organizations that have studied the material in class.
(3). Selecting some of the material organization of more basic, simple, and fundamental.
(4). Presenting ideas on the application level.
2. Prerequisites Sequence Learning
Rangkain prerequisit learning based on the learning structure, or hierarchy of learning. Structure learning is a structure that indicates a fact or an idea that must be learned before getting new ideas. It suggests a prerequisit on an idea. Learning prerequisit can be considered as a critical component in a problem / idea.
3. Creating Summary
Summary serves to give a brief statement about the content of the field of study that has been studied, and examples are easy to remember reference to any concept, procedure or principle being taught. This is done by the teacher after each section delivering instructional materials. There are two kinds of summaries in theory elaboration: 1) Summary of the inside, which comes at the end of each lesson and a summary only of ideas and facts learned .2) set of summaries, summaries of all the facts and ideas that have been studied throughout the collection of subject matter students are learning. A collection of lessons are some of the lessons, plus lessons elaborated, plus other subjects are also elaborated.
4. Make Synthesis
Pensintesisan is a component of the strategy of elaboration theory serves to show the linkages between the concepts, procedures or principles being taught. At this stage, teachers begin braces ngaitkan between the teaching materials with other teaching materials. Pengkaitan aims to help make students more easily the concepts, procedures and principles. In a very important lesson combining and connecting material / ideas that have been studied, such as:
a. Provide a variety of valuable knowledge to the students.
b. Provide insight into the facility through comparison and individual differences.
c. Adding the effects of motivation and significance to new knowledge.
d. Adding memory to add to the creation of new knowledge and related among new knowledge relevant to the students' prior knowledge.
In theory elaboration, synthesis is a strategy to connect and combine a collection of concepts, collection procedures, collection of principles.
Analogies are used to facilitate the understanding of the study of the teaching materials that have been provided. The way that is done is by comparing it with the knowledge that has been recognized by the study. Thus, the close similarities between the new knowledge with the knowledge which is used as an analogy, the more effective use of analogy.
1. Cognitive-strategy activator
Learning will be more effective if it is able to encourage the study, whether consciously or not, to use appropriate cognitive strategies in the learning process. There are two ways to activate the cognitive strategies that embedded strategy and detached strategy. Embedded teaching strategy is to design the study in such a way that it is forced to use it. Furthermore detached strategy is an attempt to require the study shows what they have learned.
2. A learner-control format
Control study Yatim was quoted as represented by Merill Riyanto learning refers to the freedom to choice and sequencing of the content of the study, the speed of learning, the components you want to use learning strategies and cognitive strategies used. In this case, students can decide for themselves where the epitome of his, when he began to learn, how they learn, and when she entered a summary.
Each component in the elaboration of learning so there must be applied in accordance with the steps that will be discussed later. Thus, a teacher must be aware of these components and apply them in the learning process.